OrderPaperToday – When Liyatu Ayuba arrived at the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) Durumi settlement, Abuja after fleeing a Boko Haram attack in Gwoza, Borno state, she was distraught and her heart was filled with despair. She had lost everything with no hope of fending for herself. This was in 2013.

Her husband, a former police officer and major income earner of the family, was killed by insurgents, leaving her with nine children to cater for.

With no source of livelihood, Liyatu wondered how she would restart her life in an Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camp in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja – miles away from home.

Liyatu is one of the over 2 million IDPs from the north-east region of the country, according to a UN Refugee Agency in 2019. The over 10-year insurgency has left thousands dead and property worth millions of naira destroyed.

Many of the IDPs – including Liyatu – fled the north-east for safety after Boko Haram held sway in a number of towns in Borno and the region at large.

However, Liyatu was determined to survive the hardship inflicted on her as a result of the insurgency.

Few months after settling in Abuja, she was opportuned to come in contact with a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) from where she picked up a few skills. She had already begun selling sachet water also known as “pure water.”

Until Liyatu fled to Abuja, she had refused to wear the “cloak of dependency.” This could be said about many of the women displaced from their homes owing to the insurgency.

A study by the Premium Times Centre for Investigative Journalism (PTCIJ) corroborates this position. However, some women have taken the bull by the horn.

Female IDPs as sources for media reports
A PTCIJ graph on female sources in Nigerian media reports

In this report, five female IDPs, mostly widows and living in safer communities in Abuja and Maiduguri, shared how they have been able to take charge of their earnings without waiting for handouts from the government, NGOs or individuals.

‘My business got bigger in camp’

Ayuba is example of IDPs making a living for themselves
Liyatu Ayuba, woman leader of 18 IDPs camps in Abuja

“Pour water into this bowl, I want to start peeling the potato”, Liyatu called out to one of her daughters when this reporter visited her residence, a few meters away from the camp.

While in Gwoza, she ran a restaurant at Muna garage and constantly traveled to Lagos, Republic of Benin, and Ghana for business.

“At the garage, people knew me well because I gave money to people to start their business. In fact, I built my house and owned a car. Boko Haram destroyed everything but I will never give up,” the 50- year-old woman said.

Ayuba typifies the can-do spirit of the female IDP
Ayuba on the beat…

In addition to her cooking business, she produces liquid soap, air freshener, antiseptics, cleans houses, and makes hair. She uses her gains to settle the house rent and children’s school fees.

“In the beginning, I had struggles with getting capital for my business. Now, I make capital and profit. I even add more money to the capital. But I make sure to adjust according to how the market goes”, she said halfway into peeling the potato.

“I have also opened other places where I have people who I pay and they help me with my business in their respective locations. I pay them N500 every day and allow them to eat out of the food.”

Liyatu plays an exemplary role, serving as the woman leader of 18 IDPs camps in Abuja. She holds meetings with her counterparts in other camps twice every week, giving them tips on how to manage their businesses even when faced with discrimination.

“If you see me outside would you think I am an IDP? It is only if you know me before. Some IDPs usually face discrimination because they beg while doing business and dress terribly. Even me, I won’t buy from them if they say they are IDPs and they don’t dress well”, she said, rounding off her peeling.

‘Tailoring, fish farming cater for my eight children’

Hadiza is another reason female IDPs can succeed
Hadiza Khadijat living in Karon-Majiji IDP camp, Abuja

One striking feature about Hadiza Khadijat is her effortless smile even while recounting her sad experiences.

Hadiza, 43, also from Gwoza, has been living in Karon-Majiji, an Abuja community along Airport road, since 2014.

Her husband was a business mogul back in their community but was killed in a horrifying incident by the insurgents.

“What happened to us, we don’t pray it happens to anyone. It is not easy”, she shrugged as she recalls the gory incident.

Then, Hadiza sold shoes, fabrics, and bags. She was constantly patronized during social events. She and her husband were also into fish farming, poultry and sold cows and goats.

“On my own, I made thousands of naira in a month because anyone who wants to marry came to my shop to get things. In fact, my husband used to help me buy my fabric from Adamawa state in his car”, she said.

But her booming trade was abruptly disrupted by the insurgents. Settling in the camp, she started selling Kose (fried beans cake) but the business folded up when two of her children got critically ill.

Hadiza on the beat
Hadiza captured in her different business endeavours

Soon after the illness, she learned tailoring and recently recommenced fish farming to provide for her family.

“Two years ago, a lady brought 75 sewing machines for us, trained us, and gave us certificates. She also opened accounts for us.

“I charge my customers between N1000 to N1500 per cloth because most of them are IDPs. I just started fish farming. Some men come to patronize me. I also do Kunu, a local drink. So far this is what I use to take care of my children. It is not enough but it can provide for them”, Hadiza said.

Kurmi is one of self-sustaining IDPs
Kurmi Abubakar living in Kuchingoro IDPs camp

Kurmi Abubakar is also a widow who arrived in the nation’s capital in 2014 and now lives in Kuchingoro IDPs camp.

Before she left Gwoza, she was into fish farming and selling clothing items. According to her, she made close to N100,000 daily.

“When I was in my community, I sold clothes, hijab on a big scale. I also traveled to Cameroon to buy fish and sell it in the community. Then, I made a lot of money. In a day, I can make up to N100, 000.

“It was then I had money. In fact when my daughter was getting married, if you see my preparations, it was elaborate”, she narrated with excitement.

Back in the camp, the 45-year-old mother of 10 children sells air freshener, perfume, and incense to fend for her family.

“I make between N2, 000 to N10, 000 every day. It depends on patronage. The prices of my wares are from N300 to N3500 per unit. I sell my wares in the camp or any market like Asokoro or Games village.”

Although she experiences low patronage, she hopes to get enough money to venture into a profitable business like fish farming.

Ruth is of the IDPs camp in Borno
Ruth Steven, IDP living in Maiduguri, Borno state

Kose changed my fortune when I left Gwoza’

The story of Ruth Steven comes with a twist because unlike others who were engaged while in their communities, she was dependent on her husband.

Ruth, her husband, and four children escaped Gwoza to Bakassi camp, one of the oldest IDPs shelters in Maiduguri in 2011. A year later, limited space forced them to exit the camp in search of a rented apartment.

Ruth caught on camera during business hours

“Mama Kanka, hope Kose (fried beans cake) is still remaining?”, a girl asked as the reporter met Ruth by her food station, on a bright Saturday morning in Maiduguri, Borno capital.

Every morning for the past six years, Ruth sells Kose, at the front of the College of Nursing and Midwifery in Maiduguri.

Prior to her newfound love as she calls it, she got tired of staying in the house and unable to support her family as she desired. She was at the mercy of her husband who works as a storekeeper in a food company, to carry out basic activities for herself.

On a certain afternoon in 2014, an idea came to her to engage in prayers for three days and she hoped it would grant her solution to her financial misery, Ruth said.

Fortunately, on the third day, her breakthrough came when a neighbor asked her if she could fry Kose for a living. She was given N2,000 to start the business, an amount she received in tears due to the sudden turn of events.

“That was how I began counting N10, N20, N50, and now N1000. Kose made me laugh o. If I buy anything, it is because of my Kose business. I am fresh because of Kose. Anything I do in the house, is because of my business.

“If I have the opportunity to give a testimony in the church I will sing ‘anything you see on my body, it is Jesus that did it and Kose‘. I feel very comfortable now because I don’t beg my husband or brothers for money. I can buy anything I want for me and my children”, she gleefully recounted.

Daily, Ruth earns between N10,000 to N19,000. She also uses her proceeds to buy foodstuff in the house.

She considers herself lucky because her husband is supportive of her business. He helps her with house chores, prepares the children for school, and in fact waits for her to return every night before he sleeps.

Nursing or teaching are the only options that will make her consider leaving her Kose business.

She gushed about her attraction to the white uniforms of the nursing students whenever they patronise her.

“If I leave my business, I will go to the university or attend this nursing school where I sell for the students. Wow! I want to be a nurse! When I see them inside their white gown, I am always jealous because I have always imagined myself inside the uniform. Or I could be a teacher”, the 32-year-old said with excitement.

She almost got admitted into a school of health in Maiduguri but she turned it down because she fears she might not be able to sustain her fees if her business stops.

“If I have enough money, I can continue my education. But if I abandon my business, who will help me? If someone gives me the money to return to school, I might consider dropping all that I am doing and go. But I am saving for my education.”

Zainab also an empowered IDP
Zainab Usman, IDP living in Maiduguri, Borno state

‘I am happy my children can go to school because of Kose

Zainab Usman had just finished selling Kose and was playing with her children when this reporter entered her well-spaced apartment around Meiwa road, Maiduguri.

In 2013, she got fed up with the frequent attacks in Bama local government and decided to leave. She pleaded with her husband whom she had been married to for 30 years, to follow them but he declined.

Since then, she took up the responsibility of supporting herself and her nine children with her trade.

Now living in Borno’s capital, she says she has no reason to look back because her business is flourishing. From her daily sales, she earns between N5,000 to N9,000.

For her, it is enough to pay her children’s school fees, feed, pay for their rent, and settle other bills.

“Here, I live peacefully but if I relocate to Bama I won’t be able to sleep well. I am interested in training my children to their highest education and not abandon them. I am happy that my children are going to school out of Kose,” she said with a grin.

She hopes to save enough money to get a grinding machine for herself and other Kose sellers within the community because they risk their lives to grind their beans either early in the morning or late at night.

These five women exemplify other female IDPs who have defied stereotypes and assumed new status as providers and breadwinners.

They want the world to see them as such – NOT as distraught or beggarly widows.


Support for this report was provided by Cable Newspaper Journalism Foundation.


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